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    高一英語上學期重難點知識匯總 | 期末復習必備!


      重點
      
      1.句子的成分和種類
      
      2.狀語、定語、名詞性從句
      
      3.重點詞匯和句型
      
      難點
      
      1.翻譯的技巧
      
      2.時態(含現在完成進行時和將來完成時)及語態(含主動表被動)
      
      一、英語簡單句的五種基本結構
      
      S+V是主謂
      
      S+V+DO 是主謂加雙賓
      
      S+V+P是主謂賓
      
      S(主語)+V(謂語)+ I(間接賓語)+D(直接賓語)
      
      S(主語)+V(動詞)+O (賓語)+Complement(補語)
      
      1. Subject (主語) + Verb (謂語)
      
      這種句型中的動詞大多是不及物動詞,這些動詞常見的有:appear, apologize,arrive, come, die, disappear, exist, fall, happen, rise,等等。如:
      
      The students work very hard.學生們學習很努力。
      
      She apologized to me again. 她再次向我道歉。
      
      The accident happened yesterday evening.事故是昨天晚上發生的。
      
      2. Subject (主語) + Link. V(系動詞) + Predicate(表語)
      
      這種句型中的系動詞一般可分為下列兩類:
      
      (1)表示狀態的連系動詞。這些詞有:be, look, seem, appear, smell, taste, sound, keep, remain, 等等。如:
      
      Several players lay flat on the playground.幾個隊員平躺在操場上。
      
      We should remain modest and prudent any time.我們在任何時候都應該保持謙虛謹慎。
      
      This kind of food tastes terrible.這種食物吃起來很糟糕。
      
      The picture looks more beautiful at a certain distance.這幅畫在一定的距離看更漂亮一些。
      
      (2)表示轉變或結果的系動詞。這些詞有:become, get, grow, turn, go, come, prove,等等。如:
      
      Spring comes. It is getting warmer and warmer.春天到了,天氣變得越來越暖和。
      
      Don't have the food. It has gone bad.不要吃那種食物,已經變質了。
      
      The facts prove true.事實證明是正確的。
      
      3. Subject(主語) + Verb (謂語) + Object (賓語)
      
      這種句型中的動詞應為及物動詞或者可以后接賓語的動詞短語。同時,句子中有時含有與賓語有關的狀語。作賓語的成分常是:名詞、代詞、動詞不定式、動名詞或從句。如:
      
      You can put the books in your bag.你可以把書放在書包里。
      
      Farmers in our area grow lots of vegetables.我們這里的農民種很多種蔬菜。
      
      She lost the chance to make her appearance on the stage.她失去了在舞臺上露面的機會。
      
      I prefer to make web pages.我更喜歡做網頁。
      
      4. Subject(主語)+Verb(謂語)+ Indirect object(間接賓語)+Direct object (直接賓語)
      
      這種句型中作間接賓語的常常指“人”,直接賓語常常指“物”。如:
      
      Yesterday her father bought her a bicycle as a birthday present.昨天她父親給她買了一輛自行車作為生日禮物。
      
      The old man is telling the children stories in the Long March.老人正在給孩子們講長征中的故事。
      
      這種句型還可轉換為其他兩種句型:1)動詞 + 賓語 + for sb.; 2)動詞 + 賓語+to sb.。如:
      
      Please show me your picture.
      
     ?。璓lease show your picture to me.
      
      請把你的畫給我看一下。
      
      I'll offer you a good chance as long as you don't lose heart.
      
      —I'll offer a good chance for you as long as you don't lose heart.
      
      只要你不失去信心,我會給你提供機會的。
      
      5. Subject(主語)+Verb (動詞)+Object (賓語)+Complement(補語)
      
      這種句型中的賓語+ 補語可統稱為“復合賓語”。擔任補語的常常是名詞、形容詞、副詞、介詞短語、分詞、動詞不定式等。如:
      
      Keep the children quiet, please. 請讓孩子們安靜下來。
      
      He painted the wall white. 他把墻漆成白色。
      
      We found him an honest person.我們發現他是一個誠實的人。
      
      His mother told him not to play on the street.他母親告訴他不要在街上玩。
      
      注意:動詞have, make, let, see, hear, notice, feel, observe, watch等后面所接的動詞不定式作賓補時,不帶to。如:
      
      The boss made him do the work all day.老板讓他整天做那項工作。
      
      二、英語句子種類兩種分類法
      
      按句子的用途可分四種:
      
      1)陳述句(肯定、否定):He is six years old.      She didn’t hear of you before.
      
      2)疑問句(一般、特殊、選擇、反意):
      
      Do they like skating?  How old is he?
      
      Is he six or seven years old? 
      
      Mary can swim, can’t she?
      
      3)祈使句:Be careful, boys.  Don’t talk in class
      
      4)感嘆句:How clever the boy is!   What a clever boy he is!
      
      按句子的結構可分三種:
      
      1)簡單句:只有一個主語(或并列主語)和一個謂語(或并列謂語)。
      
      He often reads English in the morning.     Tom and Mike are American boys.
      
      She likes drawing and often draws pictures for the wall newspapers.
      
      2) 并列句:由并列連詞(and, but, or等)或分號(;)把兩個或兩個以上的簡單句連在一起構成。
      
      You help him and he helps you.
      
      The future is bright; the road is tortuous. 前途是光明的,道路是曲折的。
      
      3)復合句:含有一個或一個以上從句的句子。英語從句包括名詞性從句(主語從句,表語從句,賓語從句和同位語從句),定語從句和狀語從句等。
      
      The foreign visitors took a lot of pictures when they were at the Great Wall.
      
      小練習
      
      判斷下列句子是簡單句、并列句還是復合句:
      
      1. The farmer is showing the boy how to plant a tree.
      
      2. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music.
      
      3. The boy who offered me his seat is called Tom.
      
      4. My brother and I go to school at half past seven in the morning and come back home at seven.
      
      5. He is in Class One and I am in Class Two.
      
      6. He was fond of drawing when he was yet a child.
      
      7. Neither has he changed his mind, nor will he do so.
      
      8. What he said at the meeting is very important, isn’t it?
      
      三、英語句子成分分析
      
      1、主語(subject): 句子說明的人或事物。
      
      The sun rises in the east. (名詞)
      
      He likes dancing. (代詞)
      
      Twenty years is a short time in history. (數詞)
      
      Seeing is believing. (動名詞)
      
      To see is to believe. (不定式)
      
      What he needs is a book. (主語從句)
      
      It is very clear that the elephant is round and tall like a tree.
      
      (It形式主語,主語從句是真正主語)
      
      附帶復習一下it 作形式主語的一些用法: 當主語部分太長時為了句子平衡采用it作形式主語。所謂形式是指句子的真正主語將在句子末段出現
      
      1.it is+名詞+從句 :It is a surprise that you give such an answer to this question.
      
      2. it is +形容詞+從句: It is certain that free medical care will be given to most people in our city.
      
      3. It +動詞+從句: It appeared that he had a taste for music.
      
      4. It be +分詞+從句:It is said that Li Tao has been to Europe.
      
      2、謂語(predicate):說明主語的動作、狀態和特征
      
      We study English.                   He is asleep.
      
      3、表語(predicative):系動詞之后的成分,表示主語的性質、狀態和特征。
      
      He is a teacher. (名詞)
      
      Seventy-four! You don’t look it. (代詞)
      
      Five and five is ten. (數詞)
      
      He is asleep. (形容詞)
      
      His father is in. (副詞)
      
      The picture is on the wall. (介詞短語)
      
      My watch is gone / missing / lost. (形容詞化的分詞)
      
      To wear a flower is to say “I’m poor, I can’t buy a ring. ” (不定式)
      
      The question is whether they will come. (表語從句)
      
      常見的系動詞有: be, sound(聽起來), look(看起來), fee l(摸起來),smell(聞起來),taste(嘗、吃起來), remain(保持,仍是), feel(感覺) ….
      
      It sounds a good idea.
      
      The sound sounds strange.
      
      Her voice sounds sweet.
      
      Tom looks thin.
      
      The food smells delicious.
      
      The food tastes good.
      
      The door remains open.
      
      Now I feel tired.
      
      4、賓語:
      
      1)動作的承受者——動賓
      
      I like China. (名詞)
      
      He hates you. (代詞)
      
      How many do you need? We need two. (數詞)
      
      We should help the old and the poor.
      
      I enjoy working with you. (動名詞)
      
      I hope to see you again. (不定式)
      
      Did you write down what he said? (賓語從句)
      
      2)介詞后的名詞、代詞和動名詞——介賓
      
      Are you afraid of the snake?
      
      Under the snow, there are many rocks.
      
      3) 雙賓語——間賓(指人)和直賓(指物)
      
      He gave me a book yesterday.
      
      Give the poor man some money.
      
      5、賓補:對賓語的補充,全稱為賓語補足語。
      
      We elected him monitor. (名詞)
      
      We all think it a pity that she didn’t come here. (名)
      
      We will make them happy. (形容詞)
      
      We found nobody in. (副詞)
      
      Please make yourself at home. (介詞短語)
      
      Don’t let him do that. (省to不定式)
      
      His father advised him to teach the lazy boy a lesson. (帶to不定式)
      
      Don’t keep the lights burning. (現在分詞)
      
      I’ll have my bike repaired. (過去分詞)
      
      6、主補:對主語的補充。
      
      He was elected monitor.
      
      She was found singing in the next room.
      
      He was advised to teach the lazy boy a lesson. 
      
      7、定語:修飾或限制名詞或代詞的詞、詞組或句子。
      
      Ai Yanling is a chemistry teacher.(名詞)
      
      He is our friend. (代詞)
      
      We belong to the third world. (數詞)
      
      He was advised to teach the lazy boy a lesson.(形容詞)
      
      The man over there is my old friend.(副詞)
      
      The woman with a baby in her arms is my sister. (介詞)
      
      The boys playing football are in Cla2. (現在分詞)
      
      The trees planted last year are growing well now. (過去分詞)
      
      I have an idea to do it well. (不定式)
      
      You should do everything that I do. (定語從句)
      
      8、狀語:用來修飾v., adj., adv., or 句子。 表示時間、地點、原因、目的、結果、程度、條件、方式和讓步。
      
      (以下例句按上述順序排列)
      
      I will go there tomorrow.
      
      The meeting will be held in the meetingroom.
      
      The meat went bad because of the hot weather.
      
      He studies hard to learn English well.
      
      He didn’t study hard so that he failed in the exam.
      
      I like some of you very much.
      
      If you study hard, you will pathe exam.
      
      He goes to school by bike.
      
      Though he is young, he can do it well.

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